2017 Editorial, Research

Philosophy studies the fundamental nature of knowledge, truth, reality, and existence. It is the study of every theoretical form of knowledge and argues the perceptual realities of humanity. Properties: Universals directs study toward the concept of "universals", entities that apply qualities and values that distinguish individuals. Perceiving universals requires that one must question relativity of all qualities. Properties: Universals explores the indefinition of universals through a visual and typographic journey.

Awarded Merit in the ISTD Student Assessment, 2017
Featured in the VCD Juried Student Show, 2017

Research includes: The Elements of Euclid: Euclid's Geometry by Oliver Byrne, Visual Grammar by Christian Leborg, Grid Systems in Graphic Design by Josef-Muller Brockmann, Interaction of Color by Josef Albers, and other philosophical texts.


Exploring abstract and unseen concepts through visual metaphor is a consistent goal of design. Properties: Universals epitomizes this practice as it presents unseen and unrepresented qualities through visual iteration.

Elements of Meaning

The book breaks down several elements of meaning: the "individual", the "universal", and the "quality". The notion of universals are depicted as a dotted circle which becomes a repetitive sequence of individual circles. The dotted circle is a systematic artifact: a sequence of qualities identifies a broad picture of the quality— this is the universal.


After creating this project, it was easier to view a full picture of visual metaphor. Even abstract entities can be represented through visual metaphor. Annotation and instruction is key in most of my work. I enjoy instructing readers what to make of the content through links between text and graphic/image.